A good Article about the sustainable relationships.Please read the article about matter of five minutes in your valuable time.
10 essential networking tips
The term “networking” is one of the most overused and often misunderstood terms. One of the problems with most young engineers trying to network is that they do not grasp the concept that the most valuable form of networking cannot be done without investing in relationships. This misunderstanding is only further exacerbated by the emergence of social networking, a topic which prompted its own discussion.
The very definition of networking dictates that a network is “a supportive system of sharing information and services among individuals and groups having a common interest.” Supportive in the sense that networking is all about building mutually beneficial relationships, from which all parties can derive positive benefit. A classic “scratch-my-back-and-I’ll-scratch-yours” type of an engagement.
So, how you approach networking matters, since it provides the basis of how you might interact with people in your professional life. The following list provides 10 often ignored tips which provide crucial insights into networking by building sustainable and productive relationships.
1. Never make assumptions
Always approach every networking opportunity with an open mind. In other words, never make assumptions about anyone you meet. The worst thing you can do is to assume that a particular individual is not worth networking with because he/she lacks the characteristics you might be looking for, say a VP of an engineering company.
One of my favorite books, The Tipping Point, provides an interesting analysis of the type of people the author terms as “connectors.” Connectors, according to the author are those “people with a special gift for bringing the world together.” So, the casually dressed gentleman you meet at the airport lobby might be a connector with access to several VPs of engineering companies. Share your bagel with him.
Networking is like golf, if you try to hard it shows and you end up playing badly. If you remember one simple fact, that networking is primarily social and secondarily business, you will be able to network more effectively. At the end of it all, the more comfortable you are, the more comfortable the person you are talking to will be with you.
3. Listen more than you talk
This goes back to the earlier point about networking being a mutually-beneficial relationship. From the initial meeting, both parties involved should be able to derive meaningful purpose from interacting with each other. So, if you find that you are the one doing most of the talking, and constantly shifting your focus from on candidate to the next, then you are wasting your time.
4. Find a common interest
The goes back to the very definition of networking. In order to cultivate the most beneficial relationship with anyone, it is a good idea to establish early on that you and the other person have common interests or common goals. If you cannot find any, don’t create them but at least look for commonalities by exploring activities and interests that might have been mentioned in the course of the conversation.
It is usually easy to find a common ground with fellow engineers, be it career, school or the passionate dislike of Biology. However, if after ten minutes you still cannot find a connection, move on.
5. Be impressive:Always make sure you have your business cards
Have you ever had a conversation with someone and realized that at the end of the conversation, you were still did not know anything about the person. This happens because most people’s idea of networking usually involves reciting their skills and objectives to as many people as possible. This type of exercise is not only counterproductive but also negates the desire for anyone to interact with you in the future.
So, how do you capture someone’s attention and leave a positive impact? Simply be yourself and stick to what you know. Networking is all about cultivating potentially beneficial relationships, so rely on your best attributes to impress whoever you are interacting with. Never, under any circumstance, try to bring up topics you are not familiar with in the name being impressive. If you fail at this all-too-common networking tactic, you end up appearing disingenuous and vague.
6. Make a graceful exit
There is usually an undisclosed time limit when it comes to networking, especially if you are in a networking event. General rule of thumb is, if you start running out of content, it is a good idea to give others a chance to interact as well. However, if you feel that you have something productive to contribute, or you feel that you need to get to know someone better, stick around as long as you are not making the other party uncomfortable. Otherwise, close off by telling the person that you enjoyed meeting. At this point you should have already exchanged contacts.
7. Follow through
This is by far the most crucial part of any networking encounter. It does not make sense to go to a networking event, establish a contact and then never follow through afterwards. The initial follow through should NEVER be an immediate request for a favor. Nothing breaks apart a potential networking relationship than only calling when you need something. Remember, networking is all about cultivating beneficial relationships. Thus said, you have to act fast, before you disappear from memory and build up on the initial meeting. Realize that even at this point you still have to maintain a high level of professionalism, so do this in a proper and professional manner.
A good follow through conversation should basically reiterate key points from earlier discussions and leave an open ticket for future correspondence. Ideally, you should seek a face-to-face meeting, but please do this tactfully.
8. Personal Touch
Since networking is, at its most basic level, the building of mutually beneficial relationships, it is important to nurture those relationships beyond business. This could initially be in the form of subtle communications such as Christmas cards, gift certificates etc. As the relationship progresses, you can move on to bigger and better things.
9. Harvest the networking benefits
You should never be afraid to utilize your networking contact on anything within the realm of their abilities. Such connections might be in the form of job referrals, introductions or help in furthering a particular business agenda.
When you have established that the individual is the proper resource for the type of connection you are seeking, approach them and articulate your request. If you have nurtured a good relationship, then the rest should be easy.
The most adept networkers know how to convey appreciation for networking favors. If someone has been helpful to you, let them know that you appreciate it. A simple thank-you card should be sent to the person as quickly as possible.
10. Become a resource for others
When you are known as a strong resource, people remember to turn to you for suggestions. In the continuing nurture of the networking relationship make sure you make your contacts aware of your strong points and how you can help them. Whenever favors are requested of you, act on them quickly.
A firewall is a device or set of devices designed to permit or deny network transmissions based on a set of rules and is frequently used to protect networks from unauthorized access while permitting legitimate communications to pass.
Many personal computer operating systems include software-based firewalls to protect against threats from the public Internet. Many routers that pass data between networks contain firewall components and, conversely, many firewalls can perform basic routing functions .
Fig : Firewall
Firewall Techniques :
There are several types of firewall techniques:
In practice, many firewalls use two or more of these techniques in concert. A firewall is considered a first line of defense in protecting private information. For greater security, data can be encrypted.
A network switch or switching hub is a computer networking device that connects network segments or network devices. The term commonly refers to a multi-port network bridge that processes and routes data at the data link layer (layer 2) of the OSI Model. Switches that additionally process data at the network layer (layer 3) and above are often referred to as layer-3 switches or multilayer switches.
The first Ethernet switch was introduced by Kalpana in 1990 .
Network switches appear nearly identical to network hubs, but a switch generally contains more intelligence (and a slightly higher price tag) than a hub. Unlike hubs, network switches are capable of inspecting data packets as they are received, determining the source and destination device of each packet, and forwarding them appropriately. By delivering messages only to the connected device intended, a network switch conserves network bandwidth and offers generally better performance than a hub.
As with hubs, Ethernet implementations of network switches are the most common. Mainstream Ethernet network switches support either 10/100 Mbps Fast Ethernet or Gigabit Ethernet (10/100/1000) standards.
Different models of network switches support differing numbers of connected devices. Most consumer-grade network switches provide either four or eight connections for Ethernet devices. Switches can be connected to each other, a so-called daisy chaining method to add progressively larger number of devices to a LAN .
Difference Between a Hub & a Switch :
A switch is effectively a higher-performance alternative to a hub. This total discussion describes hubs in more detail. People tend to benefit from a switch over a hub if their home network has four or more computers, or if they want to use their home network for applications that generate significant amounts of network traffic, like multiplayer games or heavy music file sharing. In most other cases, home networkers will not notice an appreciable difference between a hub and switch (hubs do cost slightly less) .
Technically speaking, hubs operate using a broadcast model and switches operate using a virtual circuit model. When four computers are connected to a hub, for example, and two of those computers communicate with each other, hubs simply pass through all network traffic to each of the four computers. Switches, on the other hand, are capable of determining the destination of each individual traffic element (such as an Ethernet frame) and selectively forwarding data to the one computer that actually needs it. By generating less network traffic in delivering messages, a switch performs better than a hub on busy networks.
“A switch actually dedicates the ports that are talking to each other. For example, if you have four machines (A,B,C, and D). A is talking to C and B is talking to D. A switch will shunt communications between A and C to their own, almost private connection, preserving their 100Mbps speed. B and D will also be on their own connection. Everyone talks at 100 Mbps, and there’s no real bandwidth-sharing as with a hub.”
Difference Between a Router and a Switch (or Hub) :
Routers, switches and hubs are all common components of wired Ethernet networks.
A network router is a more sophisticated network device compared to either a network switch or a network hub . Like hubs and switches, routers are typically small, box-like pieces of equipment that multiple computers can connect to. Each features a number of ports on the front or back of the unit that provide the connection points for these computers, a connection for electric power, and a number of LED lights to display device status. While routers, hubs and switches all share similar physical appearance, routers differ substantially in their inner workings.
Traditional routers are designed to join together multiple local area networks ( LAN s) with a wide area network ( WAN ) . Routers serve as intermediate destinations for network traffic. They receive incoming network packets , look inside each packet to identify the source and target network addresses, then forward these packets where needed to ensure the data reaches its final destination.
Routers for home networks (often called broad band routers) are designed specifically to join the home (LAN) to the Internet (WAN) for the purpose of Internet connection sha
ring. In contrast, switches (and hubs) are not capable of joining multiple networks or sharing an Internet connection. A network with only switches (hubs) must instead designate one computer as the gateway to the Internet, and that device must possess two network adapters for sharing, one for the home LAN and one for the Internet WAN. With a router, all home computers connect to the router as peers, and the router performs all gateway functions.
Additionally, broadband routers contain several features beyond those of traditional routers such as integrated DHCP server and network firewall support. Most notably, though, broadband routers typically incorporate a built-in Ethernet switch. This allows several switches (hubs) to be connected to them, as a means to expand the local network to accommodate more Ethernet devices.
Wi-Fi wireless networks also utilize routers but technically do not have the concept of a wireless switch or hub, although a wireless access point can be roughly compared to a wired switch .
Wireless Access Point :
In a wireless local area network (WLAN), an access point is a station that transmits and receives data (sometimes referred to as a transceiver). An access point connects users to other users within the network and also can serve as the point of interconnection between the WLAN and a fixed wire network. Each access point can serve multiple users within a defined network area; as people move beyond the range of one access point, they are automatically handed over to the next one. A small WLAN may only require a single access point; the number required increases as a function of the number of network users and the physical size of the network.
Access points used in home or small business networks are generally small, dedicated hardware devices featuring a built-in network adapter, antenna, and radio transmitter. Access points support Wi-Fi wireless communication standards.
Although very small WLANs can function without access points in so-called “ad hoc” or peer-to-peer mode, access points support “infrastructure” mode. This mode bridges WLANs with a wired Ethernet LAN and also scales the network to support more clients. Older and base model access points allowed a maximum of only 10 or 20 clients; many newer access points support up to 255 clients.
Wireless Access Point Applications :
A typical corporate use involves attaching several WAPs to a wired network and then providing wireless access to the office LAN. The wireless access points are managed by a WLAN Controller which handles automatic adjustments to RF power, channels, authentication, and security. Further, controllers can be combined to form a wireless mobility group to allow inter-controller roaming. The controllers can be part of a mobility domain to allow clients access throughout large or regional office locations. This saves the clients time and administrators overhead because it can automatically re-associate or re-authenticate.
A hotspot is a common public application of WAPs, where wireless clients can connect to the Internet without regard for the particular networks to which they have attached for the moment. The concept has become common in large cities, where a combination of coffeehouses, libraries, as well as privately owned open access points, allow clients to stay more or less continuously connected to the Internet, while moving around. A collection of connected hotspots can be referred to as a lily-pad network.
The majority of WAPs are used in Home Wireless Networks . Home networks generally have only one WAP to connect all the computers in a home. Most are wireless routers, meaning converged devices that include the WAP, a router, and, often, an ethernet switch. Many also include a broadband modem. In places where most homes have their own WAP within range of the neighbors’ WAP, it’s possible for technically savvy people to turn off their encryption and set up a wireless community network, creating an intra-city communication network although this does not negate the requirement for a wired network.
A WAP may also act as the network’s arbitrator, negotiating when each nearby client device can transmit. However, the vast majority of currently installed IEEE 802.11 networks do not implement this, using a distributed pseudo-random algorithm called CSMA/CA instead.
Wireless Access Point Vs Ad Hoc Network :
Some people confuse Wireless Access Points with Wireless Ad Hoc Networks. An Ad Hoc network uses a connection between two or more devices with out using a wireless access point: the devices communicate directly when in range. An Ad Hoc network is used in situations such as a quick data exchange or a multiplayer LAN game because setup is easy and does not require an access point. Due to its peer-to-peer layout, Ad Hoc connections are similar to Bluetooth ones and are generally not recommended for a permanent installation.
Internet Access via Ad Hoc Networks, using features like Windows’ Internet Connection Sharing, may work well with a small number of devices that are close to each other, but Ad Hoc networks don’t scale well. Internet traffic will converge to the nodes with direct internet connection, potentially congesting these nodes. For internet-enabled nodes, Access Points have a clear advantage, with the possibility of having multiple access points connected by a wired LAN.
A wireless router is a device that performs the functions of a router but also includes the functions of a wireless access point and a network switch. It is commonly used to provide access to the Internet or to some other Computer Network . It does not need a cabled connection. It can function in a wired LAN (local area network), in a wireless-only LAN (WLAN), or in a mixed wired/wireless network.
Most current wireless routers have the following characteristics:
- LAN ports which function in the same manner as the ports of a network switch.
- A WAN port which connects to a Wide Area Network , typically one with Internet access. External destinations are accessed using this port.
- A wireless antenna that allows connections to other wireless devices, such as NiCS, wireless repeaters, wireless access points, and wireless bridges.This antenna typically uses the Wi-Fi standard.
Some wireless routers also include a DSL or cable modem in addition to the other components.
The wireless router can be thought of as the very heart of the wireless network, and it functions in the same manner as a cordless phone base station. What most people refer to as being a wireless router is actually a device that has dual functions, which includes the access point, and the router itself.
The access point will be responsible for connecting the computers in the facility to one another, and it will then connect all of these to the Internet. An office which is substantially large in size may have access points or routers which are stored in distinct boxes to obtain a larger range via the network. However, these are more expensive than the typical wireless router, because they have a much larger range.
Wireless Router Features :
Every computer that exists within the wireless network will need to have a receiver which works with the wireless router. These are referred to as being network adapters, and they will typically have either a USB device or a network card. For most laptops, a network card adapter can be used, but most contemporary laptops today have such devices built in.
Older laptop models will typically need to use external devices to connect to the network. My best advice to those that wish to buy wireless routers is to make sure they purchase both the router and adapter from the identical company, as this reduces the likelihood of compatibility issues occurring. Additionally, when you purchase both from the same company, you can be assured of receiving good technical support.
Wireless Router Advantages :
There are many advantages to using a wireless router over a traditional wired router. First, there is no large group of wires that can become tangled up together. This means that once you’ve set up your wireless router, the days of tripping over wires, or accidentally pulling them out of their sockets, are over.
Additionally, with a wireless router, you literally have the freedom to carry your laptop anywhere in your home and office, and still have access. As long as you stay within the range, you should be fully connected. The mobility that comes with a wireless network can greatly increase efficiency and freedom, since you are not tied down to one location, and can move about as you please. This is the greatest advantage of using wireless routers.
Wireless Router Issues :
However, wireless routers are far from perfect. The biggest issue that they face is security. While advances have been made in recent years on wireless network security, the truth of the matter is that homes or offices that wish to have the most secure connection must use wired networks.
Additionally, because wireless routers are a newer technology, as expected, they are more expensive than their traditional wired router counterparts. Another issue that many people have noticed with wireless routers is a decrease in speed.
The farther you move away from the router, the weaker your connection will become. While improvements continue to be made, these are the key issues that one should consider when purchasing one.
WI-Fi is the trade name for the popular wireless technology used in home networks, mobile phones, video games and more. It uses radio waves to provide wireless high-speed Internet and network connections. The Wi-Fi Alliance, the organization that owns the Wi-Fi (registered trademark) term specifically defines Wi-Fi as any “wireless local area network (WLAN) products that are based on the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers.
Wi-Fi is a globally used wireless networking technology that uses the 802.11 standard. The term WiFi is an abbreviation of ‘wireless fidelity’. The technology used in WiFi was developed in 1997 by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE).
How Wireless Networks Works?
Wireless networks operate usingRadio frequency (RF) technology, a frequency within the electromagnetic spectrum associated with radio wave propagation. When an RF current is supplied to an antenna, an electromagnetic field is created that then is able to propagate through space.
The cornerstone of a wireless network is a device known as an access point (AP). The primary job of an access point is to broadcast a wireless signal that computers can detect and “tune” into. Since wireless networks are usually connected to wired ones, an access point also often serves as a link to the resources available on the a wired network, such as an Internet connection.
In order to connect to an access point and join a wireless network, computers must be equipped with wireless network adapters. These are often built right into the computer, but if not, just about any computer or notebook can be made wireless-capable through the use of an add-on adapter plugged into an empty expansion slot, USB port, or in the case of nooks, a PC Card slot
Is Wi-Fi the same as Bluetooth?
No. While both are wireless technology terms, Bluetooth technology lives under the IEEE protocol 802.15.1, while Wi Fi falls under the 802.11 specification. What this means for consumers is that appliances using Wi Fi technology and those using Bluetooth technology are not interoperable.
Difference Between Wi-Fi & Bluetooth Technology
Bluetooth and Wi-Fi are different in several ways, and are not necessarily in competition. Wi-Fi technology boasts faster data transfer speeds and range, making it a good replacement for Ethernet (802.3) systems, while Bluetooth requires less power and is therefore more prominent in small appliances, such as PDAs.
WI-Fi In Apple’s iPhone :
Apple uses the Skyhook’s Wireless Technology in its iPhone & iPod Touch for the new Wi-Fi location positioning feature in its Maps application. Using WPS, iPhone and iPod touch users can now locate themselves in the popular Maps application with the tap of one button.
How & Where Wi-Fi is used?
1. A Wi-Fi enabled device such as a PC, game console, mobile phone, MP3 player or PDA can connect to the Internet when within range of a wireless network connected to the Internet.
2. Wi-Fi can make access publicly available at Wi-Fi hotspots provided either free of charge or to subscribers to various providers. Organizations and businesses such as airports, hotels and restaurants often provide free hotspots to attract or assist clients.
3. Enthusiasts or authorities who wish to provide services or even to promote business in a given area sometimes provide free Wi-Fi access.
4. Wi-Fi also allows connectivity in peer-to-peer (wireless ad-hoc network) mode, which enables devices to connect directly with each other. This connectivity mode can prove useful in consumer electronics and gaming applications.
5. Mobile computers can connect to the Internet from any Wi-Fi hotspot, and digital cameras can transfer images wirelessly.
6. Routers which incorporate a DSL-modem or a cable-modem and a Wi-Fi access point, often set up in homes and other premises, provide Internet-access and internetworking to all devices connected (wirelessly or by cable) to them. One can also connect Wi-Fi devices in ad-hoc mode for client-to-client connections without a router.